1KNMI, de Bilt, the Netherlands
2Laboratoire d'Aérology, CNRS/OMP Toulouse, France
3Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux et Observations Spatiales, UVSQ,
4AIRBUS, Toulouse, France
5Météo France, Toulouse, France
6Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique, Université de Lille,
Sciences et Technologies, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
Received: 27 Jul 2016 – Discussion started: 25 Oct 2016
Abstract. We present an evaluation of the ability of passive broadband geostationary satellite measurements to detect high ice water content (IWC > 1 g m−3) as part of the European High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) project for detection of upper-atmospheric high IWC, which can be a hazard for aviation. We developed a high IWC mask based on measurements of cloud properties using the Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) algorithm applied to the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI).
Revised: 08 Mar 2017 – Accepted: 12 Mar 2017 – Published: 10 Apr 2017
Evaluation of the high IWC mask with satellite measurements of active remote sensors of cloud properties (CLOUDSAT/CALIPSO combined in the DARDAR (raDAR–liDAR) product) reveals that the high IWC mask is capable of detecting high IWC values > 1 g m−3 in the DARDAR profiles with a probability of detection of 60–80 %. The best CPP predictors of high IWC were the condensed water path, cloud optical thickness, cloud phase, and cloud top height. The evaluation of the high IWC mask against DARDAR provided indications that the MSG-CPP high IWC mask is more sensitive to cloud ice or cloud water in the upper part of the cloud, which is relevant for aviation purposes. Biases in the CPP results were also identified, in particular a solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence that reduces the performance of the high IWC mask for SZAs > 60°. Verification statistics show that for the detection of high IWC a trade-off has to be made between better detection of high IWC scenes and more false detections, i.e., scenes identified by the high IWC mask that do not contain IWC > 1 g m−3. However, the large majority of these detections still contain IWC values between 0.1 and 1 g m−3.
Comparison of the high IWC mask against results from the Rapidly Developing Thunderstorm (RDT) algorithm applied to the same geostationary SEVIRI data showed that there are similarities and differences with the high IWC mask: the RDT algorithm is very capable of detecting young/new convective cells and areas, whereas the high IWC mask appears to be better capable of detecting more mature and ageing convection as well as cirrus remnants.
The lack of detailed understanding of what causes aviation hazards related to high IWC, as well as the lack of clearly defined user requirements, hampers further tuning of the high IWC mask. Future evaluation of the high IWC mask against field campaign data, as well as obtaining user feedback and user requirements from the aviation industry, should provide more information on the performance of the MSG-CPP high IWC mask and contribute to improving the practical use of the high IWC mask.
de Laat, A., Defer, E., Delanoë, J., Dezitter, F., Gounou, A., Grandin, A., Guignard, A., Meirink, J. F., Moisselin, J.-M., and Parol, F.: Analysis of geostationary satellite-derived cloud parameters associated with environments with high ice water content, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1359-1371, doi:10.5194/amt-10-1359-2017, 2017.