1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
2Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
3University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
4BC Consulting, Ltd., Alexandra, New Zealand
5University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
6University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia
7Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Japan
8California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
9National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
10National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand
11University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Received: 24 Nov 2011 – Published in Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.: 03 Jan 2012
Abstract. Here, we report preliminary estimates of the column averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction, XCO2, retrieved from spectra recorded over land by the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite, GOSAT (nicknamed "Ibuki"), using retrieval methods originally developed for the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission. After screening for clouds and other known error sources, these retrievals reproduce much of the expected structure in the global XCO2 field, including its variation with latitude and season. However, low yields of retrieved XCO2 over persistently cloudy areas and ice covered surfaces at high latitudes limit the coverage of some geographic regions, even on seasonal time scales. Comparisons of early GOSAT XCO2 retrievals with XCO2 estimates from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) revealed a global, −2% (7–8 parts per million, ppm, with respect to dry air) XCO2 bias and 2 to 3 times more variance in the GOSAT retrievals. About half of the global XCO2 bias is associated with a systematic, 1% overestimate in the retrieved air mass, first identified as a global +10 hPa bias in the retrieved surface pressure. This error has been attributed to errors in the O2 A-band absorption cross sections. Much of the remaining bias and spurious variance in the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals has been traced to uncertainties in the instrument's calibration, oversimplified methods for generating O2 and CO2 absorption cross sections, and other subtle errors in the implementation of the retrieval algorithm. Many of these deficiencies have been addressed in the most recent version (Build 2.9) of the retrieval algorithm, which produces negligible bias in XCO2 on global scales as well as a ~30% reduction in variance. Comparisons with TCCON measurements indicate that regional scale biases remain, but these could be reduced by applying empirical corrections like those described by Wunch et al. (2011b). We recommend that such corrections be applied before these data are used in source sink inversion studies to minimize spurious fluxes associated with known biases. These and other lessons learned from the analysis of GOSAT data are expected to accelerate the delivery of high quality data products from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), once that satellite is successfully launched and inserted into orbit.
Revised: 01 Mar 2012 – Accepted: 13 Mar 2012 – Published: 02 Apr 2012
Citation: Crisp, D., Fisher, B. M., O'Dell, C., Frankenberg, C., Basilio, R., Bösch, H., Brown, L. R., Castano, R., Connor, B., Deutscher, N. M., Eldering, A., Griffith, D., Gunson, M., Kuze, A., Mandrake, L., McDuffie, J., Messerschmidt, J., Miller, C. E., Morino, I., Natraj, V., Notholt, J., O'Brien, D. M., Oyafuso, F., Polonsky, I., Robinson, J., Salawitch, R., Sherlock, V., Smyth, M., Suto, H., Taylor, T. E., Thompson, D. R., Wennberg, P. O., Wunch, D., and Yung, Y. L.: The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm – Part II: Global XCO2 data characterization, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 687-707, doi:10.5194/amt-5-687-2012, 2012.