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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1385-1405, 2015
http://www.atmos-meas-tech.net/8/1385/2015/
doi:10.5194/amt-8-1385-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
20 Mar 2015
Infrared and millimetre-wave scintillometry in the suburban environment – Part 1: Structure parameters
H. C. Ward1,2,3, J. G. Evans1, C. S. B. Grimmond2,3, and J. Bradford4 1Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, UK
2Department of Geography, King's College London, London, WC2R 2LS, UK
3Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB, UK
4Space Science Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, UK
Abstract. Scintillometry, a form of ground-based remote sensing, provides the capability to estimate surface heat fluxes over scales of a few hundred metres to kilometres. Measurements are spatial averages, making this technique particularly valuable over areas with moderate heterogeneity such as mixed agricultural or urban environments. In this study, we present the structure parameters of temperature and humidity, which can be related to the sensible and latent heat fluxes through similarity theory, for a suburban area in the UK. The fluxes are provided in the second paper of this two-part series. A millimetre-wave scintillometer was combined with an infrared scintillometer along a 5.5 km path over northern Swindon. The pairing of these two wavelengths offers sensitivity to both temperature and humidity fluctuations, and the correlation between wavelengths is also used to retrieve the path-averaged temperature–humidity correlation. Comparison is made with structure parameters calculated from an eddy covariance station located close to the centre of the scintillometer path. The performance of the measurement techniques under different conditions is discussed. Similar behaviour is seen between the two data sets at sub-daily timescales. For the two summer-to-winter periods presented here, similar evolution is displayed across the seasons. A higher vegetation fraction within the scintillometer source area is consistent with the lower Bowen ratio observed (midday Bowen ratio < 1) compared with more built-up areas around the eddy covariance station. The energy partitioning is further explored in the companion paper.

Citation: Ward, H. C., Evans, J. G., Grimmond, C. S. B., and Bradford, J.: Infrared and millimetre-wave scintillometry in the suburban environment – Part 1: Structure parameters, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1385-1405, doi:10.5194/amt-8-1385-2015, 2015.
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Short summary
Two-wavelength scintillometry, a ground-based remote sensing technique for deriving large-area heat fluxes, has been used over an urban area for the first time. The long data set enables investigation of the performance of the technique and characteristics of turbulent transport processes at sub-daily to inter-annual timescales. In this first paper, the structure parameters of temperature and humidity, and the correlation between temperature and humidity, are presented and analysed.
Two-wavelength scintillometry, a ground-based remote sensing technique for deriving large-area...
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