1Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA,
2Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig,
3Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA,
4Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO, USA
5School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
6British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
7School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
8Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
9V-ZUG AG, Zurich, Switzerland
10Department of Environmental Systems Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich,
Received: 21 Dec 2015 – Discussion started: 01 Feb 2016
Abstract. The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN) is a commercially available ice nucleating particle (INP) counter manufactured by Droplet Measurement Technologies in Boulder, CO. The SPIN is a continuous flow diffusion chamber with parallel plate geometry based on the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber and the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber. This study presents a standard description for using the SPIN instrument and also highlights methods to analyze measurements in more advanced ways. It characterizes and describes the behavior of the SPIN chamber, reports data from laboratory measurements, and quantifies uncertainties associated with the measurements. Experiments with ammonium sulfate are used to investigate homogeneous freezing of deliquesced haze droplets and droplet breakthrough. Experiments with kaolinite, NX illite, and silver iodide are used to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation. SPIN nucleation results are compared to those from the literature. A machine learning approach for analyzing depolarization data from the SPIN optical particle counter is also presented (as an advanced use). Overall, we report that the SPIN is able to reproduce previous INP counter measurements.
Revised: 06 May 2016 – Accepted: 15 Jun 2016 – Published: 06 Jul 2016
Garimella, S., Kristensen, T. B., Ignatius, K., Welti, A., Voigtländer, J., Kulkarni, G. R., Sagan, F., Kok, G. L., Dorsey, J., Nichman, L., Rothenberg, D. A., Rösch, M., Kirchgäßner, A. C. R., Ladkin, R., Wex, H., Wilson, T. W., Ladino, L. A., Abbatt, J. P. D., Stetzer, O., Lohmann, U., Stratmann, F., and Cziczo, D. J.: The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN): an instrument to investigate ice
nucleation, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2781-2795, doi:10.5194/amt-9-2781-2016, 2016.