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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 291-313, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
26 Jan 2017
An improved, automated whole air sampler and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis system for volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere
Brian M. Lerner1,2,a, Jessica B. Gilman2, Kenneth C. Aikin1,2, Elliot L. Atlas3, Paul D. Goldan2,*, Martin Graus4, Roger Hendershot5, Gabriel A. Isaacman-VanWertz6,b, Abigail Koss1,2, William C. Kuster1,2,*, Richard A. Lueb5, Richard J. McLaughlin1,2, Jeff Peischl1,2, Donna Sueper7, Thomas B. Ryerson2, Travis W. Tokarek8, Carsten Warneke1,2, Bin Yuan1,2, and Joost A. de Gouw2 1Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO, USA
2NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO, USA
3University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL, USA
4Universität Innsbruck, Institut für Atmosphären- und Kryosphärenwissenschaften, Innsbruck, Austria
5National Center for Atmospheric Research, Division of Atmospheric Chemistry, Boulder, CO, USA
6University of California at Berkeley, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Berkeley, CA, USA
7Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA
8University of Calgary, Department of Chemistry, Calgary, AB, Canada
acurrent address: Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA
bcurrent address: Virginia Tech, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Blacksburg, VA, USA
Abstract. Volatile organic compounds were quantified during two aircraft-based field campaigns using highly automated, whole air samplers with expedited post-flight analysis via a new custom-built, field-deployable gas chromatography–mass spectrometry instrument. During flight, air samples were pressurized with a stainless steel bellows compressor into electropolished stainless steel canisters. The air samples were analyzed using a novel gas chromatograph system designed specifically for field use which eliminates the need for liquid nitrogen. Instead, a Stirling cooler is used for cryogenic sample pre-concentration at temperatures as low as −165 °C. The analysis system was fully automated on a 20 min cycle to allow for unattended processing of an entire flight of 72 sample canisters within 30 h, thereby reducing typical sample residence times in the canisters to less than 3 days. The new analytical system is capable of quantifying a wide suite of C2 to C10 organic compounds at part-per-trillion sensitivity. This paper describes the sampling and analysis systems, along with the data analysis procedures which include a new peak-fitting software package for rapid chromatographic data reduction. Instrument sensitivities, uncertainties and system artifacts are presented for 35 trace gas species in canister samples. Comparisons of reported mixing ratios from each field campaign with measurements from other instruments are also presented.

Citation: Lerner, B. M., Gilman, J. B., Aikin, K. C., Atlas, E. L., Goldan, P. D., Graus, M., Hendershot, R., Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A., Koss, A., Kuster, W. C., Lueb, R. A., McLaughlin, R. J., Peischl, J., Sueper, D., Ryerson, T. B., Tokarek, T. W., Warneke, C., Yuan, B., and de Gouw, J. A.: An improved, automated whole air sampler and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis system for volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 291-313,, 2017.
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Whole air sampling followed by analysis by gas chromatography is a common technique for characterization of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. We describe a new automated gas chromatograph–mass spectrograph which uses a Stirling cooler for sample preconcentration at −165 °C without the need for a cryogen such as liquid nitrogen. We also discuss potential sources of artifacts from our electropolished stainless steel sampling system and present results from two field campaigns.
Whole air sampling followed by analysis by gas chromatography is a common technique for...