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Volume 10, issue 11 | Copyright

Special issue: Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric...

Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4055-4066, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-4055-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 01 Nov 2017

Research article | 01 Nov 2017

Precipitable water characteristics during the 2013 Colorado flood using ground-based GPS measurements

Hannah K. Huelsing1,2, Junhong Wang2, Carl Mears3, and John J. Braun1 Hannah K. Huelsing et al.
  • 1Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate Program Office, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 3300 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301, USA
  • 2Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA
  • 3Remote Sensing Systems, 444 10th Street, 200 Santa Rosa, CA 95401, USA

Abstract. During 9–16 September 2013, the Front Range region of Colorado experienced heavy rainfall that resulted in severe flooding. Precipitation totals for the event exceeded 450mm, damages to public and private properties were estimated to be over USD2billion, and nine lives were lost. This study analyzes the characteristics of precipitable water (PW) surrounding the event using 10 years of high-resolution GPS PW data in Boulder, Colorado, which was located within the region of maximum rainfall. PW in Boulder is dominated by seasonal variability with an average summertime maximum of 36mm. In 2013, the seasonal PW maximum extended into early September and the September monthly mean PW exceeded the 99th percentile of climatology with a value 25% higher than the 40-year climatology. Prior to the flood, around 18:00UTC on 8 September, PW rapidly increased from 22 to 32mm and remained around 30mm for the entire event as a result of the nearly saturated atmosphere. The frequency distribution of September PW for Boulder is typically normal, but in 2013 the distribution was bimodal due to a combination of above-average PW values from 1 to 15 September and much drier conditions from 16 to 30 September. The above-normal, near-saturation PW values during the flood were the result of large-scale moisture transport into Colorado from the Tropical Eastern Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico. This moisture transport was the product of a stagnating cutoff low over the southwestern United States working in conjunction with an anticyclone located over the southeastern United States. A blocking ridge located over the Canadian Rocky Mountains kept both of the synoptic features in place over the course of several days, which helped to provide continuous moisture to the storm, thus enhancing the accumulated precipitation totals.

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The precipitable water (PW) was examined for the 2013 Colorado flood to determine how climatologically abnormal this event was. The seasonal PW maximum extended into early September and the September monthly mean PW exceeded the 99th percentile of climatology with a value 25% higher than the 40-year climatology. The above-normal, near-saturation PW values during the flood were the result of large-scale moisture transport into Colorado from the eastern tropical Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico.
The precipitable water (PW) was examined for the 2013 Colorado flood to determine how...
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