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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 233-248, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-233-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
12 Jan 2018
The WeIzmann Supercooled Droplets Observation on a Microarray (WISDOM) and application for ambient dust
Naama Reicher, Lior Segev, and Yinon Rudich Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Abstract. The WeIzmann Supercooled Droplets Observation on Microarray (WISDOM) is a new setup for studying ice nucleation in an array of monodisperse droplets for atmospheric implications. WISDOM combines microfluidics techniques for droplets production and a cryo-optic stage for observation and characterization of freezing events of individual droplets. This setup is designed to explore heterogeneous ice nucleation in the immersion freezing mode, down to the homogeneous freezing of water (235 K) in various cooling rates (typically 0.1–10 K min−1). It can also be used for studying homogeneous freezing of aqueous solutions in colder temperatures. Frozen fraction, ice nucleation active surface site densities and freezing kinetics can be obtained from WISDOM measurements for hundreds of individual droplets in a single freezing experiment. Calibration experiments using eutectic solutions and previously studied materials are described. WISDOM also allows repeatable cycles of cooling and heating for the same array of droplets. This paper describes the WISDOM setup, its temperature calibration, validation experiments and measurement uncertainties. Finally, application of WISDOM to study the ice nucleating particle (INP) properties of size-selected ambient Saharan dust particles is presented.

Citation: Reicher, N., Segev, L., and Rudich, Y.: The WeIzmann Supercooled Droplets Observation on a Microarray (WISDOM) and application for ambient dust, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 233-248, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-233-2018, 2018.
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Short summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) affect the clouds' ice properties and can influence Earth’s hydrological cycle and climate. Here we present a detailed validation of WISDOM, a setup for the study of heterogeneous ice nucleation in an array of micron-sized droplets, and a demonstration of how it can be applied for the study of ice nucleation properties of ambient particles collected during dust storm events in Israel.
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) affect the clouds' ice properties and can influence Earth’s...
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