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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 11, issue 8
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4775-4795, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-4775-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4775-4795, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-4775-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 15 Aug 2018

Research article | 15 Aug 2018

Separation of the optical and mass features of particle components in different aerosol mixtures by using POLIPHON retrievals in synergy with continuous polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements

Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero1, Michaël Sicard2,3, Albert Ansmann4, Ana del Águila1, and Holger Baars4 Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero et al.
  • 1Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
  • 2CommSensLab, Dept. of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain
  • 3Ciències i Tecnologies de l'Espai – Centre de Recerca de l'Aeronàutica i de l'Espai/Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (CTE-CRAE/IEEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
  • 4Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Leipzig, Germany

Abstract. The application of the POLIPHON (POlarization-LIdar PHOtometer Networking) method is presented for the first time in synergy with continuous 24/7 polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements to derive the vertical separation of two or three particle components in different aerosol mixtures, and the retrieval of their particular optical properties. The procedure of extinction-to-mass conversion, together with an analysis of the mass extinction efficiency (MEE) parameter, is described, and the relative mass contribution of each aerosol component is also derived in a further step. The general POLIPHON algorithm is based on the specific particle linear depolarization ratio given for different types of aerosols and can be run in either 1-step (POL-1) or 2 steps (POL-2) versions with dependence on either the 2- or 3-component separation. In order to illustrate this procedure, aerosol mixing cases observed over Barcelona (NE Spain) are selected: a dust event on 5 July 2016, smoke plumes detected on 23 May 2016 and a pollination episode observed on 23 March 2016. In particular, the 3-component separation is just applied for the dust case: a combined POL-1 with POL-2 procedure (POL-1/2) is used, and additionally the fine-dust contribution to the total fine mode (fine dust plus non-dust aerosols) is estimated. The high dust impact before 12:00UTC yields a mean mass loading of 0.6±0.1gm−2 due to the prevalence of Saharan coarse-dust particles. After that time, the mean mass loading is reduced by two-thirds, showing a rather weak dust incidence. In the smoke case, the arrival of fine biomass-burning particles is detected at altitudes as high as 7km. The smoke particles, probably mixed with less depolarizing non-smoke aerosols, are observed in air masses, having their origin from either North American fires or the Arctic area, as reported by HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis. The particle linear depolarization ratio for smoke shows values in the 0.10–0.15 range and even higher at given times, and the daily mean smoke mass loading is 0.017±0.008gm−2, around 3% of that found for the dust event. Pollen particles are detected up to 1.5km in height from 10:00UTC during an intense pollination event with a particle linear depolarization ratio ranging between 0.10 and 0.15. The maximal mass loading of Platanus pollen particles is 0.011±0.003gm−2, representing around 2% of the dust loading during the higher dust incidence. Regarding the MEE derived for each aerosol component, their values are in agreement with others referenced in the literature for the specific aerosol types examined in this work: 0.5±0.1 and 1.7±0.2m2g−1 are found for coarse and fine dust particles, 4.5±1.4m2g−1 is derived for smoke and 2.4±0.5m2g−1 for non-smoke aerosols with Arctic origin, and a MEE of 2.4±0.8m2g−1 is obtained for pollen particles, though it can reach higher or lower values depending on predominantly smaller or larger pollen grain sizes. Results reveal the high potential of the P-MPL system, a simple polarization-sensitive elastic backscatter lidar working in a 24/7 operation mode, to retrieve the relative optical and mass contributions of each aerosol component throughout the day, reflecting the daily variability of their properties. In fact, this procedure can be simply implemented in other P-MPLs that also operate within the worldwide Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), thus extending the aerosol discrimination at a global scale. Moreover, the method has the advantage of also being relatively easily applicable to space-borne lidars with an equivalent configuration such as the ongoing Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board NASA CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) and the forthcoming Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID) on board the ESA EarthCARE mission.

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The high potential of the MPLNET polarized Micro-Pulse LiDAR (P-MPL) is demonstrated in synergy with the POLIPHON (POlarization-LIdar PHOtometer Networking) method to retrieve the vertical separation of both the optical and mass features of the dust, smoke and pollen components mixed with other aerosols. This synergetic procedure can be easily applied to the worldwide MPLNET lidar systems and to space-borne lidars: the ongoing NASA CALIPSO/CALIOP and the forthcoming ESA EarthCARE/ATLID.
The high potential of the MPLNET polarized Micro-Pulse LiDAR (P-MPL) is demonstrated in synergy...
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