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AMT | Articles | Volume 11, issue 10
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5565–5586, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-5565-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5565–5586, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-5565-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 12 Oct 2018

Research article | 12 Oct 2018

Experiments with CO2-in-air reference gases in high-pressure aluminum cylinders

Michael F. Schibig et al.
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Andrews, A. E., Kofler, J. D., Trudeau, M. E., Williams, J. C., Neff, D. H., Masarie, K. A., Chao, D. Y., Kitzis, D. R., Novelli, P. C., Zhao, C. L., Dlugokencky, E. J., Lang, P. M., Crotwell, M. J., Fischer, M. L., Parker, M. J., Lee, J. T., Baumann, D. D., Desai, A. R., Stanier, C. O., De Wekker, S. F. J., Wolfe, D. E., Munger, J. W., and Tans, P. P.: CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 647–687, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-647-2014, 2014. 
Brewer, P. J., Brown, R. J. C., Resner, K. V., Hill-Pearce, R. E., Worton, D. R., Allen, N. D. C., Blakley, K. C., Benucci, D., and Ellison, M. R.: Influence of Pressure on the Composition of Gaseous Reference Materials, Anal. Chem., 90, 3490–3495, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b05309, 2018. 
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For long-term monitoring of CO2 in the atmosphere it is crucial that standard reference gas mixtures stored in high-pressure aluminum cylinders, used to calibrate global measurements, remain stable over their whole time of use. This study finds a reproducible small enrichment as a cylinder is emptied at a low-flow rate, as well as somewhat larger and variable effects when a cylinder is emptied using a high-flow rate.
For long-term monitoring of CO2 in the atmosphere it is crucial that standard reference gas...
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