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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 457-485, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
27 Feb 2012
The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results
A. J. M. Piters1, K. F. Boersma2,1, M. Kroon1, J. C. Hains3, M. Van Roozendael4, F. Wittrock5, N. Abuhassan7,6, C. Adams8, M. Akrami8, M. A. F. Allaart1, A. Apituley10,1, S. Beirle24, J. B. Bergwerff10, A. J. C. Berkhout10, D. Brunner11, A. Cede12,7, J. Chong13, K. Clémer4, C. Fayt4, U. Frieß14, L. F. L. Gast10, M. Gil-Ojeda9, F. Goutail15, R. Graves16, A. Griesfeller15, K. Großmann14, G. Hemerijckx4, F. Hendrick4, B. Henzing17, J. Herman12,7, C. Hermans4, M. Hoexum10, G. R. van der Hoff10, H. Irie18, P. V. Johnston19, Y. Kanaya18, Y. J. Kim13, H. Klein Baltink1, K. Kreher19, G. de Leeuw20,17,27, R. Leigh16, A. Merlaud4, M. M. Moerman17, P. S. Monks16, G. H. Mount21, M. Navarro-Comas9, H. Oetjen22, A. Pazmino15, M. Perez-Camacho9, E. Peters5, A. du Piesanie1, G. Pinardi4, O. Puentedura9, A. Richter5, H. K. Roscoe23, A. Schönhardt5, B. Schwarzenbach11, R. Shaiganfar24, W. Sluis1, E. Spinei21, A. P. Stolk10, K. Strong8, D. P. J. Swart10, H. Takashima18, T. Vlemmix1, M. Vrekoussis5,26, T. Wagner24, C. Whyte8, K. M. Wilson10,1, M. Yela9, S. Yilmaz14, P. Zieger25, and Y. Zhou11 1Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, The Netherlands
2Technical University Eindhoven (TUE), Eindhoven, The Netherlands
3Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE), Baltimore, MD, USA
4Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium
5Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
6Morgan State University (MSU), Baltimore, MD, USA
7NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD, USA
8Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
9National Institute for Aerospace technology (INTA), Madrid, Spain
10National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands
11Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Dübendorff, Switzerland
12University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), Catonsville, MD, USA
13Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangiu, Republic of Korea
14Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
15Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), Guyancourt, France
16Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
17Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Utrecht, The Netherlands
18Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Japan
19National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand
20Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, Finland
21Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Washington State University (WSU), Pullman, WA, USA
22School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
23British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Cambridge, UK
24Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (MPIC), Mainz, Germany
25Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland
26Research Center for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece
27Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Abstract. From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX-DOAS aerosol optical thickness agrees within 20–30% with AERONET data. For the in-situ NO2 instrument using a molybdenum converter, a bias was found as large as 5 ppbv during day time, when compared to the other in-situ instruments using photolytic converters.

Citation: Piters, A. J. M., Boersma, K. F., Kroon, M., Hains, J. C., Van Roozendael, M., Wittrock, F., Abuhassan, N., Adams, C., Akrami, M., Allaart, M. A. F., Apituley, A., Beirle, S., Bergwerff, J. B., Berkhout, A. J. C., Brunner, D., Cede, A., Chong, J., Clémer, K., Fayt, C., Frieß, U., Gast, L. F. L., Gil-Ojeda, M., Goutail, F., Graves, R., Griesfeller, A., Großmann, K., Hemerijckx, G., Hendrick, F., Henzing, B., Herman, J., Hermans, C., Hoexum, M., van der Hoff, G. R., Irie, H., Johnston, P. V., Kanaya, Y., Kim, Y. J., Klein Baltink, H., Kreher, K., de Leeuw, G., Leigh, R., Merlaud, A., Moerman, M. M., Monks, P. S., Mount, G. H., Navarro-Comas, M., Oetjen, H., Pazmino, A., Perez-Camacho, M., Peters, E., du Piesanie, A., Pinardi, G., Puentedura, O., Richter, A., Roscoe, H. K., Schönhardt, A., Schwarzenbach, B., Shaiganfar, R., Sluis, W., Spinei, E., Stolk, A. P., Strong, K., Swart, D. P. J., Takashima, H., Vlemmix, T., Vrekoussis, M., Wagner, T., Whyte, C., Wilson, K. M., Yela, M., Yilmaz, S., Zieger, P., and Zhou, Y.: The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 457-485,, 2012.
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