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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 8, issue 9
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3745–3765, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-3745-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Special issue: Atmospheric emissions from oil sands development and their...

Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3745–3765, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-3745-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 16 Sep 2015

Research article | 16 Sep 2015

Determining air pollutant emission rates based on mass balance using airborne measurement data over the Alberta oil sands operations

M. Gordon1,a, S.-M. Li1, R. Staebler1, A. Darlington1, K. Hayden1, J. O'Brien1, and M. Wolde2 M. Gordon et al.
  • 1Air Quality Process Research Section, Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto, Canada
  • 2National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada
  • acurrently at: Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Canada

Abstract. Top-down approaches to measure total integrated emissions provide verification of bottom-up, temporally resolved, inventory-based estimations. Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made in support of the Joint Canada–Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring during a summer intensive field campaign between 13 August and 7 September 2013. The measurements contribute to knowledge needed in support of the Joint Canada–Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring. This paper describes the top-down emission rate retrieval algorithm (TERRA) to determine facility emissions of pollutants, using SO2 and CH4 as examples, based on the aircraft measurements. In this algorithm, the flight path around a facility at multiple heights is mapped to a two-dimensional vertical screen surrounding the facility. The total transport of SO2 and CH4 through this screen is calculated using aircraft wind measurements, and facility emissions are then calculated based on the divergence theorem with estimations of box-top losses, horizontal and vertical turbulent fluxes, surface deposition, and apparent losses due to air densification and chemical reaction. Example calculations for two separate flights are presented. During an upset condition of SO2 emissions on one day, these calculations are within 5 % of the industry-reported, bottom-up measurements. During a return to normal operating conditions, the SO2 emissions are within 11 % of industry-reported, bottom-up measurements. CH4 emissions calculated with the algorithm are relatively constant within the range of uncertainties. Uncertainty of the emission rates is estimated as less than 30 %, which is primarily due to the unknown SO2 and CH4 mixing ratios near the surface below the lowest flight level.

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Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made during a summer intensive field campaign in 2013. This paper describes the top-down emission rate retrieval algorithm (TERRA) to determine facility emissions of pollutants, using SO2 and CH4 as examples. Uncertainty of the emission rates estimated with TERRA is estimated as less than 30%, which is primarily due to the unknown SO2 and CH4 mixing ratios near the surface below the lowest flight level.
Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made...
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