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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 9, issue 7 | Copyright
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3309-3323, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-3309-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 26 Jul 2016

Research article | 26 Jul 2016

Simulation study for measurement of horizontal wind profiles in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere using ground-based observations of ozone and carbon monoxide lines in the 230–250 GHz region

David A. Newnham1, George P. Ford1,a, Tracy Moffat-Griffin1, and Hugh C. Pumphrey2 David A. Newnham et al.
  • 1British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK
  • 2School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF, UK
  • anow at: Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, Devon, EX1 3PB, UK

Abstract. Meteorological and atmospheric models are being extended up to 80km altitude but there are very few observing techniques that can measure stratospheric–mesospheric winds at altitudes between 20 and 80km to verify model datasets. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of horizontal wind profile measurements using ground-based passive millimetre-wave spectroradiometric observations of ozone lines centred at 231.28, 249.79, and 249.96GHz. Vertical profiles of horizontal winds are retrieved from forward and inverse modelling simulations of the line-of-sight Doppler-shifted atmospheric emission lines above Halley station (75°37′S, 26°14′W), Antarctica. For a radiometer with a system temperature of 1400K and 30kHz spectral resolution observing the ozone 231.28GHz line we estimate that 12h zonal and meridional wind profiles could be determined over the altitude range 25–74km in winter, and 28–66km in summer. Height-dependent measurement uncertainties are in the range 3–8ms−1 and vertical resolution  ∼ 8–16km. Under optimum observing conditions at Halley a temporal resolution of 1.5h for measuring either zonal or meridional winds is possible, reducing to 0.5h for a radiometer with a 700K system temperature. Combining observations of the 231.28GHz ozone line and the 230.54GHz carbon monoxide line gives additional altitude coverage at 85±12km. The effects of clear-sky seasonal mean winter/summer conditions, zenith angle of the received atmospheric emission, and spectrometer frequency resolution on the altitude coverage, measurement uncertainty, and height and time resolution of the retrieved wind profiles have been determined.

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We demonstrate the feasibility of measuring polar atmospheric winds over the altitude range 23–97 km using ground-based millimetre-wave Doppler radiometry. Atmospheric and instrument simulations were carried out for Halley station, Antarctica. This remote sensing technique will provide continuous horizontal wind observations in the stratosphere and mesosphere where measurements are currently very limited. The data are needed for meteorological analyses and atmospheric modelling applications.
We demonstrate the feasibility of measuring polar atmospheric winds over the altitude range...
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